Covid-19 pandemic is also known as the CORONA-VIRUS, which was identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China for the first time in the world. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. More than 78.5 million cases have been confirmed and more than 1.72 million people dead because of Covid-19 till the end of 2020 year.
This covid-19 is communicable diseases which transfer from one person to another through the air. If an infected person breathe, cough, sneeze or speak in the public place then there is high chance of transferring this diseases through their mouth, nose or eyes to unaffected person. The symptoms of this virus are high fever, cough, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, loss of smell and taste. But people may have different symptoms with the same infection because this symptom may change over time. Like, some people may have high fever, cough and fatigue but in other people they may have low fever at the start but problems in breathing may appear in few days. The infected peoples loss their sense of taste and smell on everything. Some other symptoms of these diseases are Neurological symptoms; that can be broadly divided into central nervous system involvement such as dizziness, headache and disorientation, skin rashes, muscle and joint pain etc.
We need to follow some preventive measure to stay safe from this disease such as; wearing face masks in public area, making social distance, ventilation and air-filtering, washing hands with hand wash, covering mouth while sneezing or coughing, and self-isolation at home. It would be good if we don’t go to clinic or hospital for small injures. Also many countries have implemented in travel restrictions and lockdowns to prevent from Covid-19. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of the infected.
The world is in the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic. Many people have lost their life because of corona virus. The whole world is working to end this virus, so more than 63 COVID-19 vaccines are in trials all over the world and 18 have reached the final stage of testing. World Health Organization (WHO) is also working in the development of the vaccine. New vaccines are given to the animals such as mice or monkeys to see the effect of the vaccine.
There is a process in testing the vaccine, everyone need to follow the process before testing the new vaccine in human beings.
In first process the scientists test the new vaccine on the cell of mice or monkey to see the immune response which is known as PRECLINICAL TESTING. In second process, Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test the safety and to confirm that stimulates the immune system which is known as SAFETY TRIALS. In third process, the scientists give vaccine to a group of people around hundreds and separate them in two groups of children and the elder, to see if the vaccine works differently in them, this is known as EXPANDED TRIALS. And final process is EFFICACY TRIALS, in this process the Scientists give vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see the result of infected. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the corona virus, measuring what’s known as the efficacy rate. This process is also large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare
Britain and many other countries have started giving the emergency authorization to vaccines based on preliminary evidence that they are safe and effective. But China and Russia have authorized vaccines without waiting for the result of final process EFFICACY TRIALS.
The German company BioNtech and New York-based Pfizer made history by making corona virus vaccine which was over 90% effective. This was the first time that someone found such evidence and one month later the Food and Drug Administration granted it the first emergency use authorization ever given by the United States to corona virus vaccine. Who is working with its partners Gavi and UNICEF to ensure that the infrastructure is in place, and technical support available, to make sure COVID-19 vaccines can be safely delivered to all those who need them.